The Concept of Nursing in Holistic Theories: An Integrative Review

Document Type : Original Quantitative and Qualitative Research Paper


1 PhD candidate of nursing, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 Associated professor, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

3 Professor, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


Background: The initial review of the holistic nursing theories showed that while most definitions of holism share the same attributes, its application to nursing practice has led to much discourse.
Aim: This review therefore was carried out to analyze the concept of nursing in three known holistic theories including Rogers, Watson, and Margaret Newman.
Method: This concept analysis of nursing in the holistic theories was conducted based on Broom methodology of integrative review. Different stages of review included problem identification, literature search, data evaluation, data analysis, conclusion drawing and verification.
The literature was consisted of four books from three known theorists, and eight relevant articles. They retrieved from English data bases including SCOPUS and MEDLINE.
Results: The results of nursing concept analysis in holistic theories showed that holistic nursing is a process of mutual relationship of human to human in which the nurse participates in a heart-centered, purposeful and conscious presence, caring of the client as an irreducible, respectful whole, in mutual relation with environment. This requires individual empowerment and intentionality of the nurse as well as client’s trust. to the consequence of this relationship is a feeling of well being for both partners and protection, enhancement, and preservation of human dignity.  
Conclusion: Through the process of concept analysis in this study we conclude that holistic nursing is a mutual evolving participative process. Although the basis of these holistic theorists’ thoughts of holism is similar, but each theorist has viewed a special aspect of its application. The analysis of nursing concept gives us a theoretical integrative definition consists of the attributes and the requirements of its application and the exact role of each partners in the caring relationship process that can help to clarify, measure and use this concept in clinical practice.                


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