The effect of aquatic aerobics exercises on some of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with multiple scleroesis

Document Type : Original Quantitative and Qualitative Research Paper


1 Department of physical education, Neyshabure branch, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabure, Iran

2 Department of physical education, Mashhad branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

3 MSc Physiology student, Mashhad branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran


Background: The most common complications of multiple sclerosis (MS) are fatigue, muscle cramps, tremore, squint, imbalance and gait disorders. Doing aquatic aerobics exercises lead to an increase in both physical strength as well as the domain of body movement in M.S patients. In addition, making the balance against the risk factors would decrease the risk of getting cardiovascular disease.
Aim: Toinvestigate the effect of aquatic aerobics exercise on some of cardiovascular risk factors in female MS patients.
Method: In this quasi-experimental study, 40 female MS patients on the basis of illness degree were allocated randomly into two groups. The experimental group participated in the exercise program for 8 weeks, each week three sessions with intensity of 50-60 percent of the maximum heart rate. The cardiovascular risk factors were measured in experimental and control groups before and after exercise. Blood cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL were also measured. The collected data were analyzed by independent and paired t test.
Results: After the exercise, the experimental group showed significant decrease in LDL (p<0.001), cholesterol (p<0.001) and triglyceride (p<0.005). There was no significant difference in HDL level in experimental group.
Conclusion: Aquatic aerobics exercises cause an increase in physical strength in M.S patients so that moderate the cardiovascular risk factors and decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases. So, it is recommended to specialists to use these exercises as a supplementary treatment besides medical treatments for MS patients.


1. Soltani M, Hejazi SM, Noorian A, Zendedel A, Ashkanifar M. The Effect of Aerobic Training
on the Improvement of Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) in Multiple Sclerosis Patients.
JMS. 2009 ;( 1) 5: 15-20.
2. Armstrong LE, Winant DM, Swasey PR, Seidle ME, Carter AL, Gehlsen G.Using isokinetic dynamometry to test
ambulatory patients with multiple sclerosis. Phys Ther. 1983 Aug; 63(8):1274-9.
3. Soltani M, Hejazi SM, Noorian A, Zendedel A, Ashkanifar M. The Effect of Selected
Aerobic Exercise on the Balance Improvement in Multiple Sclerosis Patients. J Mashhad
School Nurs Midw. 2009; 9(2): 107-13. (Persian)
4. Taraghi Z .Quality of Life among Multiple Sclerosis Patients. Iran Journal of Nursing. 2007;
20(5): 49-57. (Persian)
5. Abedini M, Habibi Saravi R, Zarvani A, Farahmand M. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in Mazandaran, Iran,
2007. Prevalence and Indicate Epidemiologic aspects, Journal of mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 2008;
18(66):82-6. (Persian)
6. Soltani M, Hejazi SM, Khjei R, Rashidlamir A. Investigating the Effect of Aquatic Aerobic Training on the Speed of
Walking in High and Low-Degree Multiple Sclerosis Patients. Iranian Journal of Health and Physical Activity .2011;
2 (1): 67-72. (Persian)
7. Mollaoglu M, Ustun E.Fatigue in multiple sclerosis .J clin NURS 2009 May; 18(9): 1231-8.
8. Motl RW, Mcauley E,Snook EM. Physical and multiple sclerosis:a meta – analysis. Mult Sclera. 2005(Aug); 11(4):
9. Danni- M, Splendiani G, Efficacy of Aerobic Training on Fatigue and quality of life in multiple Sclerosis. ECTRIMS.
2004 ECTRIMS 04. VIENNA 20Th congress of the European committee for treatment and Research in Multiple
sclerosis 9th Annual meeting on Rehabilitation of MS October 6-9 2004.
10. Matuska K,Mathiowetz V,Finlayson M.Use and perceived effectiveness of energy conservation strategies for managing
multiple sclerosis fatigue. Am J Occup 2007 Jan – feb ; 61 (1):62-9 .
11. Jafarian, Najibeh; Sadeghi, Amir. Multiple sclerosis and their care. Tehran: Publication of a healthy, communityminded.
2007. (Persian)
12. Wiles CM, Newcombe RG, Fuller KJ, Shaw S, Furnival-Doran J, Pickers gill TP. Controlled Randomised Crossover
trail of the effects ofphysiotherapy on mobility in chronic multiple sclerosis. Journal ofNeurology, Neurosurgery
& psychiatry. 2001; 70(2): 174-9.
13. Stuifbergen AK,Blozis SA , Harrison TC ,Becker HA .Exercise , Functional limitation , and quality of life : a longitudinal
study of persons with multiole dclerosis. Phys Med Rehabil. 2006; 87:935-43.
14. Dalgas U,Stenager E ,Ingemann– Hansen T . Multiple sclerosis and physical exercise:
Recommendations for the application of ressistance – endurance and combined training. Mult sclera. 2008 Jan; 14(1):
15. Motle RW, Arnett PA, Smith MM, Barwick FH, Ahlstrom B, and Stover EJ .Worsening of symptoms is associated
with lower physical activity level in individuals multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 2008 Jan; 14(1): 140-2.
16. soltani M, Hejazi SM, Norian A, Zendedel A, Ashkanifar M.Comparing the Effect of 8 week aquatic aerobic training
on the rate of balance on high & low degree M.S patients.6th International Congress on Physical Education and
sport Sciences 4-6 March 2008.
17. Atashzadeh F, Shiri H, Moshtaqe esheqi Z.Effect of Exercise Training on Activity of Daily
Living in Women with Multiple Sclerosis in Iranian Multiple Sclerosis Society. Journal of Rafsenjan University of
Medical Sciences 2003 ;( 3)9:164 –71. (Persian)
18. White LJ ,McCoy SC ,Castellano V ,Gutierrez G ,Stevens JE ,Walter Ga et al.Resistance training improves strength
and functional capacity in person with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 2004 Dec; 10(6): 668-74.
19. Woods DA.Aquatic exercise programs for patient with multiple sclerosis. Clin kinesiol 1992; 45:14-20.
20. Miyatake N, Matsumoto S, Nishhikawa H, Numata T. Relationship between body composition changes and the
blood pressure response to exercise test in overweight Japans subjects. Act Med Okayama. 2007; 61(1):1-7
21. Ring- Dimit riou,S. Nine months aerobic fitness induced changes on blood lipids and lipoproteins in untrained
subjects versus controls. Euro J Apple physiol.2007; 99(3): 9-291
22. Mximo Maislos. Marked increase in plasma high Ramadan. Am J Clin. 1993; 18(5):640-2
Improved diabetes control after prolonged fasting – the Ramadan model
23. Vuorhamaa t, Ahotuupa m, Irjala k, Vasankarl t. Acut prolonged exercise reduces moderately oxidized LDL in
healthy men. Into J Sports Med 2005, 26: 420-5
24. Higushi M, Hashimoto I. Effect of exercise training on plasma HDL lipoprotein level at content weight’s Japan
utter. 1983; 1: 1-23