Comparison of using cooled and regular-temperature nasogastric tubes on the success of nasogastric intubation

Document Type : Original Quantitative and Qualitative Research Paper


1 Ph.D. candidate in nursing, Evidence based research center, Department of medical surgical nursing, , School of nursing and midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2 MS in Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3 Instructor of Nursing, Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

4 Assistant professorDepartment of Forensic Medicine and poisoning, School of medicine, Mashhad University of Medical sciences, Mashhad, Iran


Background: Successful nasogastric intubation is defined as “correct placement of the tube with minimum number of attempts” which is an important issue in nasogastric intubation. Due to controversies in the use of cold tubes in nasogastric tube insertion, need for research in this area seems necessary.
Aim: To compare the effect of using cold versus regular-temperature nasogastric tubes on successful nasogastric tube insertion.
Methods: In this two-group trial, 65 patients who were admitted to toxicology emergency department of Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad, were divided into two groups of control and intervention by random allocation. In the intervention group, nasogastric intubation was carried out with tubes that had been stored in a refrigerator at 2-8 °C, while in the control group room-temperature tubes at 22-28 °C were applied based on the standard procedure. Data were analyzed using chi-square and t-student tests in SPSS version 11.5.
Results: The mean age of the participants was 28.5±9.8, with 65.6% men in control group and 51.5% women in the intervention group. Among the participants, in 84.4% of the control group and 100% of the intervention group subjects, nasogastric tube was inserted with only one attempt (p<0.01); however, the frequency of correct intubation was not statistically significant between the two groups (P = 0.30).
Conclusion: Refrigerating the tubes reduces the number of attempts in nasogastric intubation. Therefore, it is an effective way to enhance the success of nasogastric intubation and it is suggested that in order to decrease complications, increase patients’ comfort, and save nurses time, nasogastric tubes refrigerated before the procedure.


Main Subjects

  1. Smeltzer SC, Bare BG, Hinkle JL, Cheever KH. Text book of Medical Surgical Nursing. 12nd ed. Wolters Kluwer Health. Philadelphia Publishers.2010, 1, P: 1022-1026.
  2. Geti A. Emergency Nursing.1nd. Tehran, Boshra Publishers.1384, P: 53.(Persian)
  3. Sadatian A.Toxicity.7.Tehran:Samat;1379.(Persian)
  4. Haghyghat F, Zamani A. The Use of Nasogastric Tube in Abdominal Surgery. Journal of Medical Council of Islamic Republic of Iran.1379; 18(4):267-269.
  5. Aghabekloei A, Mostafazadeh B. Diagnosis and Treatment of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Acute Poisoning are Common in the Iran.1. Tehran:Hayan;1389.(Persian)
  6. Tsai Y- F, Luo C- F, Illias A, Lin C- C، Yu H- P. Nasogastric Tube Insertionin Anesthetized and Intubated Patients: a New and Reliable Method. BMC Gastroenterology.2012; 12:99.
  7. D-H, Kim N-Y, shin Y-S, Kim S-H. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Frozen Versus Standard Nasogastric Tube Placement. World journal of surgery. 2009; 33:1789-1792.
  8. Jethesh A, Prerana P. Nasogastric Tube Insertion Using Different Techniques in Anesthetized Patients: A Prospective, Randomized Study. AnesthAnalg 2009: 109:832-5.
  9. Upile T, Stimpson P, Christe M, Mahil J, Tailor H, Jerijes w. Use of Gel Caps to Aid Endoscopic Insertion of Nasogastric Feeding Tubes: A Comparative Audit.  Head and neck oncology. 2011; 3:24.

10. Ghaemi M, Bagheri H. Cmparison of Success Rate of Three Methods of Nasogastric Intubation.komesh. 1390;12(4):402-6.(Persian)

11. Khan H, Khan I, Gupta A, Hussain N, Nageshwaran S. OSCEs for Medical Finals.1en ed. UK: Black well;2013.

12. Duri R, Venkatraman R. Nasogastric Tube Insertion Technique and Confirming Position. Nursing times. April 2009; 105:16.

13. Penrod J, Morse J, Wilson sh.‍‍‍‍ Comforting Strategies uUsed During Nasogastric Tube Insertion.journal of clinical nursing.1999; 8:31-8.

14. Rojhani sherazi. Effect of Cold and Pain Thresholds in Women 18 to 25 Years. Journal of Babol University of Medical Sciences.1380;3(3):26-9.(Persian)

15. Craven F, Hirnle J. Fundamental of Nursing. 4nd Ed. New York: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2003.

16. Taylor C. Clinical Nursing Skills. 3nd ed. China: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2011.

17. Potter PA, Perry AG. Fundamental of Nursing. 7nd ed. Canada (NY): Mosby Elsevier; 2009.

18. Department of emergency medicine university of Ottawa. Nasogastric Tube Insertion (hompage on the internet). C 2013. Available from:

19. Harold C, Jane E. Factors Affecting Nasogastric Tube Insertion: Critical Care Medicine. 1984: Vol12:52-3.