The effects of presence and guidance of a teacher on the anxiety of hospitalized children

Document Type : Original Quantitative and Qualitative Research Paper


1 MS in Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of neinat and child, Mashhad, Iran

2 MScN., PhD Student in Nursing, Faculty member of the School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad university of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3 NMS in hospital imam reza; Mashhad University of neinat and child, Mashhad, Iran


Background: Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent class of psychiatric disorders that affect both children and adolescents. There is no doubt that in order for children to feel active, the need for education during their hospitalization period and convalescence exists.
Aim: To determine the effect of presence of the teacher on anxiety of hospitalized children
Methods: This study was a clinical trial that was conducted on 50 children admitted to pediatric ward of Imam Reza hospital and the children were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, teachers were present at children’s bedside for daily education and practices. The data collection tool was a child’s anxiety assessment form, which was completed at the admission and discharge by interviewing the children. Data were analyzed with independent t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficients, using SPSS software version 11.5.
Results: 32 patients in the study group and 31 in control group were girls; 18 patients in the study group and 14 patients in the control group were studying in third grade. Prior to the study, anxiety scores between the two groups were not significantly different. Basis on the results of the paired T-test, the anxiety scores of the study group before the intervention (44.86 ± 3.44) and after that (41.25 ± 2.29) were significantly different. The independent t-test results showed a significant difference between the mean anxiety score in the study group (p <0.004) and control (p = 0.53) after the intervention.
Conclusion: the presence of a teacher can be beneficial for decreasing the anxiety levels of hospitalized children and the problems that can occur under the influence of anxiety.


Main Subjects

  1.  Jafarnejad F. Children Nursing In Health and Illness. Mashhad: Parsirana Publications; 2003; 14(109):13. (Persian)
  2. Robinson, J., et al. Quality of Attachment as a Predictor of Maternal Visitation to Young Hospitalized Children, J Pediatr Psychol. 1996: 401-17.
  3. Mortazavi H, Tabatabaeichehr M.Handbook of Children Nursing: Healthy child. Tehran: Salemi; 2002.P:11. (Persian)
  4. Khanjari, S Mola F, Davachi A, Haghani. Effect of Play on Anxiety of Hospitalized Children. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery 1380; 14(28). (Persian)
  5. Sanjari M. Hospitalization Children and Parent Anxiety. Iranian Journal of Nursing. 1383; 39: 41-8. (Persian)
  6. Riaz H, Mansoor I. Manifest Anxiety Scale, Second Edition (RCMAS-2) and its Reliability Assessment, Int J Edu Psychol Assess.  August 2011; 8(1):1-11.
  7.  Memarzadeh M, Hosseinpor M, Aflakeian H. Effect of preoperative Anxiety in Children 2-6 years of game rooms in hospitals Zahra .The Journal of Surgery. 2006; 14(4). (Persian)
  8. McCann ME, Kain ZN. The Management of Preoperative Anxiety in Children: An Update. AnesthAnalg. 2001; 93: 98-105.

9. Yanlo M.Game Effects on Children Anxiety School Age Children Hospitalized in Tehran.NursingMaster's thesis.2000:11-28. (Persian)

10. Hamed tavasoli H,Elhani F. Study of Orientation Effect on Anxiety in Children with Thalassemi Again before School Age, Nurs Res . 1391; 7(26):47-9. (Persian)

11. Alahyari A, Alhani F. Methods and Procedures for Preparing the Child Injections for Reduce Pain. Iranian Journal of Pediatrics. 1384; 1: 238. (Persian)

12. Mash H, Berkeley R. Psychology, Child Abuse, Child Psychopathology (translated by Tozandejani H, Tavakolizade J, Kamal Pour N), First Edition, Volume 1, published by Avaye Kelk-E-Marandiz, 2005: 198-201. (Persian)

13. Ratnapalan S, Rayar M S, Crawley M, Educational Services for Hospitalized Children, Paediatr Child Health. September2009; 14(7): 433–6.

14. Greenberg HA. The Emotional Problems and Education of Hospitalized Children. J Pediatr. 1949 Feb; 34(2):213-8.

15. Taghavi M R, Normal Mapping Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale for Different Grades of Students in Shiraz, Journal Of Social Sciences And Humanities Of Shiraz University,2006;22(4):177-88. (Persian)

16. Han H, Measuring Anxiety in children: A Methodological Review of the Literature, Asian Nurs Res, 2009; 3(2):49-61.

17. Rabie M, R, S Mahmood Malik Kazemi, The Effect of Music on Anxiety of Hospitalized Children, Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences,2008; 9(3): 59-64. (Persian)

18. Yaghoubi Y., Niknami, M., Ghanbari, A., Yousefi, celebrity, Mahmoud; Impact on the Game Anxiety among School Age Children Hospitalized - Tehran hospitals. , Student thesis, Shahid Beheshti Nursing Library Blog: 82-4. (Persian)

19. Abbasi M, Aghamohammadian Sherbaf, HR, Effects of Interaction between Parents - Child Reduces the Symptoms of Separation Anxiety Disorder in Mashhad. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1389; 2 (6):47-57. (Persian)

20. Carr A. What Works with Children, Adolescents, and Adults? New York: rout ledge, 2009:11-4.

21. Zolfaghari Motlagh M, Jazayeri A R,, Khoshabi K, Mazaheri M A, Karimlou M. Effectiveness of Attachment Based Therapy on Reduction of Symptoms in Separation Anxiety Disorder, Iran J Psychiatry, Vol. 14, No. 4, Winter 2009, 380-8. (Persian)