Design of psychometric assessment questionnaire to determine the causes of discomfort among patients admitted to the intensive care unit

Document Type: Original Quantitative and Qualitative Research Paper

Authors

1 Associate Professor, school of Education & psychology, ferdowsi University of mashhsd

2 Professor of Nursing, Evidence Based Care Research Center; Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3 Instructor of nursing, Department of medical surgical nursing, School of nursing and midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical sciences, Mashhad, Iran

4 Associate Professor, School of health, Mashhad University of Medical sciences, Mashhad, Iran

5 Ms in nursing, Ghaem hospital, Mashhad University of Medical sciences, Mashhad, Iran

6 Ms in nursing, Bojnoord Azad Islamic University, Bojnoord, Iran

7 Master of education management, Central organization of astan quds razavi, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

Background: Particular circumstances in the intensive care unit have led the patients to experience significant levels of pain and discomfort. On the other hand, these patients cannot express their discomfort due to several reasons.
Aim: to develop the causes of discomfort in the intensive care units.
Methods: In order for assessing the causes of discomfort, the initial questionnaire was extracted with 60 items and its content validity was then confirmed by experts. Questionnaires were completed for 220 patients hospitalized in intensive care units of Imam Reza and Ghaem hospitals of Mashhad, in 1392. The exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the discomfort factors. The reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was applied by Cronbach’s alpha and approved by inter-raters agreement. Data analysis was performed with SPSS version 14.
Results: Factorial analysis showed that the components of the 30-item questionnaire of discomfortfactors in the intensive care units was identified in 5 domains including: isolation and loneliness (7 questions), anxiety (6 factors), the ICU environment (6 factors), treatment (6 factors), and pathophysiologic factors (5 factors). The range of Cronbachs alpha coefficient for sub-scales of the questionnaire of discomfort factors in the intensive care unit was between 0.65 and 0.85, and cronbachs alpha coefficient for the whole tool was 0.86.
Conclusion: the questionnaire of discomfort factors is designed to assist the nursing staff of the intensive care units to identify discomfort factors in patients and ultimately improve the quality of care for them. The psychometric characteristics of this questionnaire confirm its validity and reliability, so that it can be used to determine the source of discomfort among the ICU patients.

Keywords

Main Subjects


  1. Kalfon P, Mimoz O, Auquier A, Loundou A, Gauzit R, Lepape A, et al. Development and Validation of a Questionnaire for Quantitative Assessment of Perceived Discomforts in Critically Ill Patients. Intensive Care Med J. 2010; 36:1751-8
  2. Wallen K, Chaboyer W, Thalib L,Debera K. Symptoms of Acute Post Traumatic Stress Disorder after Intensive Care . Am J Crit Care. 2008;17(6)
  3.  Ozer N, Akyli R. The Effect of Providing Information to Patients on Their Perception of the Intensive Care Unit. Aust J Adv Nurs. 2005;25(4)
  4. Alipour N, Toulabi T, ManouchehrianN, Anbari kh, RahimiBashar F. A Comparison of the Effect of Open and Closed Endotracheal Suctioning on Hemodynamic Status of Patients in the ICU. Evidenced Based Care journal.2013; 2(4):57-67.(Persian)
  5. Leur J P V D, Schans C P D, Loef B G, Deelman B G, Geertzen J HB, Zwaveling J H. Discomfort and Factual Recollection in Intensive Care Unit Ptients. Critical care. 2004;8: 467-73
  6. Kolcaba .K Y. An Analysis of the Concept of Comfort. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 1991;16:1301-10
  7. Malinowski A, Stamler l. Comfort: Exploration of the Concept in Nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2002;39(6):599-606.
  8.  Yousefi H, Abedi HA, Yarmohammadian MH, Elliott D. Comfort as a Basic Need in Hospitalized Patients in Iran: A Hermeneutic Phenomenology Study. Journal of Advanced Nursing.2009;65(9),1891-8.
  9. Del Barrio M, Lacunza MM, Armendariz AC, Margall MA, Asiain MC. Liver Transplant Patients: Their Experience in the Intensive Care Unit. A Phenomenological Study. J Clin Nurse. 2004;13(8):967-6.
  10. Sekmen, K. Hatipoğlu, S. The Influence of Technological Environment of Intensive Care Units on Patients and Their Families. Intensive Care.1999;3(3):22-9.
  11. Zeilani a R, SeymourbJ E. Muslim Women’s Experiences of Suffering in Jordanian Intensive Care Units: A Narrative Study. Intensive Crit Care Nurs (2010) 26: 175-84.
  12. Mehrara M,  Fazaeli A. A Health Finance Equity in Iran: An Analysis of Household Survey Data (1382-1386). Journal of Health Administration 2010;13 (40):51-62(Persian)
  13. Sadrossadat SJ, Minaee A. An Easy Guide to Factor Analysis. Samt Publication. 1392.(Persian)
  14. PashaSharifi h. The Principle of Psychometric and Psychological Testing. Roshd Publication. 2nd ed.1392.(Persian)