Effect of self-efficacy-based training on maternal sense of competency of primiparous women in the infants care

Document Type: Original Quantitative and Qualitative Research Paper

Authors

1 MS in Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2 Instructor of Midwifery, Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3 Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

Background: Most primiparous women don’t have enough sense of competency, most of it being due to lack of experience. Maternal self efficacy-based training, have led to improved maternal-infant outcomes.
Aim: : To determine the effect of self-efficacy education on maternal sense of competency of primiparous women in the infant care.
Methods: In this clinical trial, 61 primiparous women were randomly divided into two groups. In the intervention group, an educational program was applied based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory 10-15 days postpartum. The research instruments were parental expectations survey, Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, Infant Temperament, and Edinburg Depression Scale. Reliability and validity of the instruments were confirmed using the method of content validity and internal consistency. Data were analyzed using independent t-tests, Mann-Whitney U, paired t test and Wilcoxon.
Results: The mean age of the mothers was 24/4±3/2 years. The two groups were homogenous in terms of personal characteristics, although a significant difference was seen in terms of perceived social support (p<0.05). Before the intervention, the mean score for maternal sense of competency was not statistically difference between the intervention (68/8±7/6) and control groups (66/7±7/9) (P=0/315).After the intervention, the difference between the mean score of maternal sense of competency in the intervention group (75/5±9/0) and control group (68/3±9/6) was statistically significant (p=0/004). 
Conclusion: Given the importance of self-efficacy improvement strategies in the improvement of maternal – child outcomes, application of self-efficacy resource can improve the sense of competency in motherhood.

Keywords

Main Subjects


  1.  Leahy-Warren P, McCarthy G, Corcoran P. First-time Mothers: Social Support, Maternal Parental Self-efficacy and Postnatal Depression. J Clin Nurs. 2012;21(3-4):388-97.
  2.  Kuo SC, Chen YS, Lin KC, Lee TY, Hsu CH. Evaluating The Effects of an Internet Education Programme on Newborn Care in Taiwan. J Clin Nurs. 2009;18(11):1592-601.
  3. Leahy Warren P. First-time Mothers: Social Support and Confidence in Infant Care. J Adv Nurs. 2005;50(5):479-88.
  4. Liu CC, Chen YC, Yeh YP, Hsieh YS. Effects of Maternal Confidence and Competence on Maternal Parenting Stress in Newborn Care. J Adv Nurs. 2012;68(4):908-18.
  5.  Ngai F, Chi Chan  S. Stress, Maternal Role Competence,and Satisfaction Among Chinese Women in the Perinatal Period. Res Nurs Health. 2012;35:30-9.
  6. Mercer RT, Ferketich SL. Experienced and Inexperienced Mothers' Maternal Competence During Infancy. Res Nurs Health. 1995;18(4):333-43.
  7. Bandura A. Self-efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change. Psychol Rev. 1977;84(2):191-215.
  8. Hessa  C, Tetib  D, Hussey-Gardner B. Self-efficacy and Parenting of High-risk Infants:The Moderating Role of Parent Knowledge of Infant Development. J Appl Dev Psychol. 2004;25:423–37.
  9. Jones TL, Prinz RJ. Potential Roles of Parental Self-efficacy in Parent and Child Adjustment: a review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2005;25(3):341-63.
  10. Prasopkittikun T, Tilokskulchai F, Sinsuksai N, Sitthimongkol Y. Self-Efficacy in Infant Care Scale: Development and Psychometric Testing. Nurs Health Sci. 2006;8(1):44-50.
  11. Jones TL, Prinz RJ. Potential Roles of Parental Self-efficacy in Parent and Child Adjustment: a Review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2005;25(3):341-63.
  12. sharon K. The Effect of Maternal Psychological Factors On maternal Competence For Infant Feeding: Vanderbilt University; 2008
  13. Lee LL, Arthur A, Avis M. Using Self-efficacy Theory to Develop Interventions That Help Older People Overcome Psychological Barriers to Physical Activity: a Discussion Paper. Int J Nurs Stud. 2008;45(11):1690-9.
  14. Peyman N. Modifing and Evaluating of Steps of Behavioral Changes (SBC) Model Integrated with Self-efficacy Theory In Order to Decrease Unwanted Pregnancy. Tehran: Tarbiat Modares University; 2007.(persion)
  15. Salonen AH, Kaunonen M, Astedt-Kurki P, Jarvenpaa AL, Isoaho H, Tarkka MT. Parenting Self-efficacy After Childbirth. J Adv Nurs. 2009;65(11):2324-36.
  16. Leahy-Warren P, McCarthy G. Maternal Parental Self-efficacy in The Postpartum Period. Midwifery. 2011;27(6):802-10.
  17. Pajares F. Self-efficacy Beliefs in Academic Settings. Rev Educ Res. 1996;66(4):543-78.
  18. Bowman KG. Postpartum Learning Needs. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2005;34(4):438-43.
  19. Strecher VJ, DeVellis BM, Becker MH, Rosenstock IM. The Role of Self-efficacy in Achieving Health Behavior Change. Health Educ Behav. 1986;13(1):73-92..
  20. Sansom L. Confident Parenting-A Book Proposal: University of Pennsylvania; 2010. Available from: http://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1018&context=mapp_capstone
  21. Leahy-Warren P, McCarthy G, Corcoran P. First-time Mothers: Social Support, Maternal Parental Self-efficacy and Postnatal Depression. J Clin Nurs. 2012;21(3-4):388-97.
  22. Bryanton J, Gagnon AJ, Hatem M, Johnston C. Predictors of Early Parenting Self-Efficacy: Results of a Prospective Cohort Study. Nurs Res. 2008;57(4):252-9.
  23. Tarkka MT. Predictors of Maternal Competence by First-time Mothers When The Child is 8 Months Old. J Adv Nurs. 2003;41(3):233-40.
  24.  Fabian HM, Radestad IJ, Waldenstrom U. Childbirth and Parenthood Education Classes in Sweden. Women's opinion and possible outcomes. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2005;84(5):436-43.
  25. Deave T, Johnson D, Ingram J. Transition to Parenthood: The Needs of Parents in Pregnancy and Early Parenthood. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2008;8:30.
  26. Sercekus P, Mete S. Effects of Antenatal Education on Maternal Prenatal and Postpartum Adaptation. J Adv Nurs. 2010;66(5):999-1010.
  27. Gagnon AJ. Individual or Group Antenatal Education for Childbirth/Parenthood. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2000.
  28. Nichols MR. Adjustment to New Parenthood: Attenders versus Nonattenders at Prenatal Education Classes. Birth. 1995;22(1):21-6.
  29. Arcamone  A. The Effect Of Prenatal Education On Adaptation To Motherhood After Vaginal Chldbirth Primiparous Women As Assessed By Roys Four Adaptative Modes: Widener University; 2005.
  30. Reece SM. The Parent Expectations Survey: a Measure of Perceived Self-efficacy. Clin Nurs Res. 1992;1(4):336-46.
  31. Copeland DB, Harbaugh BL. Transition of Maternal Competency of Married and Single Mothers in Early Parenthood. J Perinat Educ. 2004;13(4):3-9.
  32. Dahlem NW, Zimet GD, Walker RR. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support: a confirmation study. J Clin Psychol. 1991;47(6):756-61.
  33. Bates JE, Freeland CA, Lounsbury ML. Measurement of Infant Difficultness. Child Dev. 1979;50(3):794-803.
  34. Edhborg M, Matthiesen AS, Lundh W, Widstrom AM. Some Early Indicators for Depressive Symptoms and Bonding 2 Months Postpartum-a Study of New Mothers and Fathers. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2005;8(4):221-31.
  35. McQueen KA, Dennis CL, Stremler R, Norman CD. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of a Breastfeeding Self-efficacy Intervention with Primiparous Mothers. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2011;40(1):35-46.
  36. Svensson J, Barclay L, Cooke M. Randomised-controlled Trial of Two Antenatal Education Programmes. Midwifery. 2009;25(2):114-25.
  37. Noel-Weiss J, Rupp A, Cragg B, Bassett V, Woodend AK. Randomized Controlled Trial to Determine Effects of Prenatal Breastfeeding Workshop on Maternal Breastfeeding Self-efficacy and Breastfeeding Duration. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2006;35(5):616-24.
  38.  Perez-Blasco J, Viguer P, Rodrigo MF. Effects of a Mindfulness-Based Intervention on Psychological Distress, Well-being, and Maternal Self-efficacy in Breast-feeding Mothers: Results of a Pilot Study. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2013;16(3):227-36.
  39. Salonen A. Parenting Satisfaction and Parenting Self-efficacy During the Postpartum Period: Evaluation of an Internet-based Intervention 2010. Available from: http://tampub.uta.fi/handle/10024/66655
  40. Salonen AH, Kaunonen M, Astedt-Kurki P, Jarvenpaa AL, Isoaho H, Tarkka MT. Effectiveness of an Internet-based Intervention Enhancing Finnish Parents' parenting Satisfaction and Parenting Self-efficacy During The Postpartum Period. Midwifery. 2011;27(6):832-41.
  41. Bandura A. Self-efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: W.H. Freeman 1997.
  42. Cutrona CE, Troutman BR. Social support, Infant Temperament, and Parenting Self-Efficacy: a Mediational Model of Postpartum Depression. Child Dev. 1986;57(6):1507-18
  43. Coleman PK, Karraker KH. Self-efficacy and Parenting Quality: Findings and Future Applications. Dev Rev. 1998;18(1):47-85.
  44. Teti DM, Gelfand DM. Behavioral Competence Among Mothers of Infants in The First Year: The Mediational Role of Maternal Self-efficacy. Child Dev. 1991;62(5):918-29.
  45. Mash EJ, Johnston C. The Prediction of Mothers' Behavior with Their Hyperactive Children During Play and Task Situations. Child Fam Behav Ther. 1983;5(2):1-14.
  46. Hayes L, Matthews J, Copley A, Welsh D. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Mother-Infant or Toddler Parenting Program: Demonstrating Effectiveness in Practice. J Pediatr Psychol. 2008;33(5):473-86.
  47. Chislett G, Kennett D. The Effects of the Nobody’s Perfect Program on Parenting Resourcefulness and Competency. J Child Fam Stud. 2007;16(4):473-82.
  48. Gao LL, Chan SW, Sun K. Effects of an Interpersonal-Psychotherapy-Oriented Childbirth Education Programmefor Chinese First-time Childbearing Women at 3-month Follow up: Randomised Controlled Trial. Int J Nurs Stud. 2012;49(3):274-81.
  49. Ngai FW, Chan SW, Ip WY. The Effects of a Childbirth Psychoeducation Program on Learned Resourcefulness, Maternal Role Competence and Perinatal Depression: a Quasi-Experiment. Int J Nurs Stud. 2009;46(10):1298-306.