The effect of aerobic exercise with 55-65% intensity of HRR on proteins C, S and platelets in sedentary middle-aged women

Document Type: Original Quantitative and Qualitative Research Paper

Authors

1 Associate Professor of Exercise Physiology, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Master of physical education and sports science, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

3 General Physician, Hayyan Clinic, Mashhad, Iran

4 PhD Student of Exercise Physiology, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

Background: In recent years, research has been done into various aspects of blood coagulation system, while the effect of exercise on this system has not been studied. Exercise may be able to contribute to the processes of coagulation and fibrinolysis cascades.
Aim: To investigate the effect of six months of aerobic exercise on proteins C, S and platelets in sedentary middle-aged women.
Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 19 inactive middle-aged women were randomly divided into two groups: experimental and control. The experimental group attended aerobic exercise with the intensity of 55 to 65% of the heart rate reserve for six months; three sessions per week, each 60 minutes. A Coulter type CO-BASS device measured the coagulation factors. Data were analyzed by SPSS ver. 16, independent and paired t-tests.
Results: the mean age was 42.2 ± 3.3 years old and weight 64.0 ± 8.6 kg. Sample were identical and normal confirmed by statistical tests of levene and Shapiro-Willkie (p>0.05). The results of paired t-test showed no significant changes in the levels of protein C (101.3 ± 6.1) in the experimental group (p=0.81). The changes of protein S (101.6 ± 5.2) were not significant in this group (p=0.12) either. Nevertheless, the level of platelets (254636.3± 65944.3) was significantly increased in the experimental group (p<0.04). Moreover, the intergroup variations in protein C (p=0. 22), protein S (p=0.16), and platelets (p=0.89) were not significant.
Conclusion: Due to the effect of aerobic exercise on platelet levels in the present study, it is suggested that aerobic exercise can be used to prevent and treat blood coagulation problems.

Keywords

Main Subjects


  1. Samavati-Sharif MA, Ranjbar K, Sazvar A. The Effect of Resistance Training Exercise on Hematological, Immunological and Coagulation Parameters in Sedentary Young Men. Journal of Evidence-Based Care 2013; 3(6): 37-47. (Persian)
  2. A SE, Moses PD, George R. Ocular Manifestations of Behcet's Disease. J of Indian Pediatr. 2005; 42(9): 934-8.
  3. Smith JE. Effect of Strenuous Exercise on Haemostasis. Br J of Sports Med 2003; 37(5): 433-5.
  4. El-Sayed MS, El-Sayed Z, Ahmadizad S. Exercise and Training Effects on Blood Haemostasis in Health and Disease. J of Sports Med 2004; 34(3): 181-200. (Persian)
  5. El-Sayed MS, Ali N, El-Sayed Z. Aggregation and Activation of Blood Platelets in Exercise and Training. J of Sports Med 2005; 35(1): 11-22. (Persian)
  6. Ghanbariniaki A, Amirnezhad S, Hakimi J. Effect of Three Days of Non-consecutive Running one Mile on Hematology Variables. J of Sports Sci 2006; 3: 54-7. (Persian)
  7. Fredrichson LA, Puhl JL, Ungan WS. Effects of Training on Indices of Iron Status of Sedentary Middle-aged Women. J of Med Sci Sport Exerc 1983; 15(4): 271-6.
  8. Moore RJ, Friedl KE, Tulley RT. Maintenance of Iron Status in Healthy Men During an Extended Period of Stress and Physical Activity. Am J of Clin Nutr 1993; 58(6): 923-7.
  9. Nikseresht A, Basirat N. The Effect of Aerobic Exercises on the Level of Lipid and Glucose in the Blood of Fasting Men. J of Jahrom Univ Med Sci 2010; 8(4): 1-6. (Persian)
  10. Karakoc Y, Duzova H, Polat A, et al. Effect of Training Period on Haemorheological Variables in Regularly Trained Footballers. Br J of Sports Med 2005; 39(2): 24-9.
  11. Dressendorfer RH. Development of Runner Anemia During a 20-day Road Race: Effects of Iron Supplements. Int J of Sports Med 1999; 12(3): 332-6.
  12. Moore RJ, Friedl KE, Tulley RT. Maintenance of Iron Status in Healthy Men during an Extended Period of Stress and Physical Activity. Am J of ClinNutr 1998; 58(6): 923-7.
  13. Szymanski LM, Kessler CM, Fernhall B. Relationship of Physical Fitness and Homeostatic Risk Factors in Postmenopausal Women. J of Appl Physiol 2005; 98: 1341-8.
  14. Menzel K, Hilberg T. Coagulation and Fibrinolysis in Balance after Moderate Exercise in Middle-aged Participants. J of Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2009; 15(3): 348-55.
  15. Kahraman S, Demirkan F, Bediz C. The Effect of Exercise on Fibrinolysis and Coagulation Systems in Healthy Volunteers. J of Thromb Haemost 2007; 2: 362-8.
  16. Cristina Z, San Jose, Imperatriz P. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Coagulation, and Plasma Lipids, Vascular Disease Prevention. J of Bentham Science 2005; 2: 145-50.
  17. Zanettini R, Bettega D, Agostoni O, Ballestra B, del Rosso G. The Effect of Exercise on Fibrinolysis. J of Cardiology 2002; 88: 468-73.
  18. Wang JS. Exercise Prescription and Thrombogenesis. J of Biochem Sci 2006; 13(2): 753-61.
  19. Teoman N, Ozcan A, Acar B. The Effect of Exercise on Physical Fitness and Quality of Life in Postmenopausal. J of Maturitas 2004; 47: 71-7.
  20. El-Sayed M, Lin X. Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis in Response to Maximal Exercise before and after a Physical Conditioning Program. J of Blood Coagula Fibrinolysis 1995; 20: 747-52.
  21. Koeing W, Ernst E. Exercise and Thrombosis. J of Coronary Artery Disease 2000; 11: 123-7.
  22. Ghanbari-Niaki A. Plasma Apo-M Response to a Circuit Resistance Training Program. J of Annals of Applied Spo Sci 2013; 1(4): 1-4.
  23. Kahraman S, Demirkan F, Bediz C. The Effect of Exercise on Fibrinolysis and Coagulation Systems in Healthy Volunteers. J of Thromb Haemost 2007; 2: 362-8.
  24. Foster NK, martyn JB, rangno RE, Hogg JC, Pardy RL. Leukocytosis of Exercise: Role of Cardiac Output and Catecholamines. J of Appl Physio 1986; 61: 2218 -23.
  25. Argonaut SE, Moses PD, George R. Ocular Manifestations of Behcet's Disease. J of Indian Pediatr 2005; 42(9): 942-5.
  26. Tait RC, Walker ID, Reitsma PH. Prevalence of Protein C Deficiency in the Healthy Population. J of Thromb Haemost 1995; 73(1): 87-93.

22.  Crowley LV. An Introduction to Human Disease: Pathology and Pathophysiology Correlations. J of Crit Care Med 2010; 25: 246-50.

25.  Lekakis J, Triantafyllidi H, Galea V. The Immediate Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Haemostatic Parameters in Patients with Recently Diagnosed mild to Moderate Essential Hypertension. J of Thro 2008; 25: 179–84.

26.  Pasupathy S, Naseem KM, Homer-Vanniasinkam S. Effects of Warm-up on Exercise Capacity, Platelet Activation and Platelet-leukocyte Aggregation in Patients with Claudicating. Br J of Surg 2005; 92: 50–5.

27.  Aldemir H, Kiliç N. The Effect of Time of Day and Exercise on Platelet Functions and Platelet-neutrophil Aggregates in Healthy Male Subjects. J of  Mol Cell Biochem. 2005; 280: 119-24.

28.  Wang J-S, Yen H-L, Yang C. Warm-up Exercise Suppresses Platelet-eosinophil/neutrophil Aggregation and Platelet-promoted Release of Eosinophil/neutrophil Oxidant Products Enhanced by Severe Exercise in Men. J of Thromb Haemost 2006; 95: 490–8.

29.  Perneby C, Wallen NH, Hofman C. Effect of Clopidogrel Treatment on Stress-induced Platelet Activation and Myocardial Ischemia in Aspirin-treated Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease. J of Thromb Haemost 2007; 98: 1316–22.