The Effectiveness of Sexual Education Focused on Cognitive Schemas, on the Improvement of Sexual Functioning among Female Married Students

Document Type: Original Quantitative and Qualitative Research Paper

Authors

1 MA in Clinical Psychology, Department of Psychology, School of Educational Science and Psychology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Assistant professor of Psychology, School of Educational Science and Psychology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

Background: Sexual relationship plays a decisive role in human’s health and it seems that sexual education can enhance the quality of sexual relationship.
Aim: Investigating the effectiveness of sexual education focused on cognitive schemas, on the improvement of sexual functioning of female married students.
Methods: This research was carried out semi-experimentally and a pretest-posttest designed control group was used. A total of 28 persons were selected and put into two groups. Sexual education was offered to the experimental group for eight 90-minute sessions. In both groups, the degree of sexual functioning was measured and registered before and after intervention using women’s sexual functioning index questionnaire (FSFI), and was analyzed with SPSS version 16 and t-test.
Results: T-test results showed significant relationship between the two groups in the overall scores of sexual functioning, sexual desire components, psychological arousal, moisture, orgasm and sexual satisfaction, in a way that in all cases the scores of the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p<0.001). However, t-test reported no significant difference between the two groups in terms of sexual pain component
Conclusion: The present research demonstrated that sex education with focuse on cognitive schemas was an effective method for improving sexual functioning, and therefore, it is proposed that this matter should be taken into consideration by clinical therapists for enhancing the quality of couples’ relationships.

Keywords

Main Subjects


  1.  Litzinger S, Gordon KC, Exploring Relationships among Communication, Sexual Satisfaction, and Marital Satisfaction. J Sex Marital Ther 2005; 31(5):409-22.
  2. Wilson H, McAndrew S, Sexual Health: Foundations for Practice. London: Bailliere Tindall; 2000.
  3. Keyvani M, Health Psychology. Tehran University Publication; 2007. (Persian)
  4. Grandon JR, Myer JE, Hattie JA, the Characteristic between Marital Characteristics, Marital Interaction Processes, and Marital Satisfaction. J cous Dev 2004; 82(3): 302_20
  5. Astone H, Astone A, the Relationship between Spouse Relations and Sexual Satisfaction. J cous Dev 2003; 8 (9): 5-17. (Persian)
  6. Ohady B, Sexual Behaviors and Desires.Tehran: Sadeghe Hedayat Publication; 2004. (Persian)
  7. Beck AT, Depression: Causes and Treatment. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press; 1967.
  8. Beck   JS, Cognitive Therapy: Basics and Beyond. New York: Guilford Press; 2011.
  9. Sbrocco T, Barlow DH, Conceptualizing the Cognitive Component of Sexual Arousal: Implications for Sexuality Research and Treatment .In P. M. Salkovskis (Ed.), Frontiers of cognitive therapy. New York: Guilford Press; 1996.
  10. Middlelton LS, Kuffel SW, Heiman JR, Effectes of Experimentally Adopted Sexual Schemas on Vaginal Response and Subjective Sexual Arousal. J Sex behavior 2008; 10 (2):2-4.
  11. Andersen BL, Cyranowski JM, Women’s Sexual Self-schema. J Pers Soc Psychol 1994; 67(3): 1079–100.
  12. Andersen BL, Cyranowski J M, Espindle D, Men’s Sexual Self-schema. J Pers Soc Psychol 1999; 76(5): 645–61.
  13. Cyranowski JM, Aarestad SL, Andersen BL, the Role of Sexual-schema in a Diathesis-stress Model of Sexual Dysfunction.  J Appl Behav Anal 1999; 8(3):  217–28.
  14. Cyranowski JM, Andersen B L, Schemas, Sexuality and Romantic Attachment.                 J Pers Soc Psychol 1998; 74(4): 1364–79.
  15. Cyranowski JM, Andersen BL, Evidence of Self-schematic Cognitive Processing in Women with Differing Sexual Self-views. J Soc Clin Psychol 2000; 19(6): 519–43.
  16. Barlow DH, Causes of Sexual Dysfunction: the Role of Anxiety and Cognitive Interference. J Consult Clin Psychol 1994; 54(3): 140–48.
  17. Basson R, Women’s Sexual Dysfunction: Revised Definitions. CMAJ 2005; 172(5): 1331-45.
  18. McCarthy BW. A Cognitive-Behavioral Approach to Understanding and Treating Sexual Trauma. J Sex Marital Ther 1986; 12(6):  322–29.
  19. McCarthy B, A Cognitive-Behavioral Approach to Sex Therapy:  Comprehensive Handbook of Cognitive Therapy (pp. 435– 47). New York: Plenum; 1989.
  20. Carey MP, Wincze J. P, and Meisler A. W, Sexual Dysfunction: Male Erectile Disorder: Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders: A Step by Step Treatment Manual (2nd ed., pp. 442–80). New York: Guilford Press; 1993.
  21. Rosen RC, Brown C, Heiman J, Leiblum S, Meston, C, Shabsig, R, the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFT): A Multidimensional Self-report Instrument for the Assessment of Female Sexual Function. J Sex Marital Ther 2000; 26(3): 191-208.
  22. Basson R, Berman J, Whipple B, Report of the International Consensus Development Conference on Female Dysfunction. J Urology 2000; 163(7): 888-93
  23. Dove NL, Wiederman M. W, Cognitive Distraction and Women’s Sexual Functioning.       J Sex Marital Ther 2000; 26(4): 67–78.
  24. Khosroshaahy Z, Determination of Prevalence of Causative Factors in Sexual Disorders. First family conference and sexual problems 2004; Tehran. (Persian)
  25. Geer JH, Fuhr R, Cognitive Factors in Sexual Arousal: the Role of Distraction.                 J Consult Clin Psychol 1976; 44(5): 238–43.
  26. Masters WH, Johnson, V. E, Human Sexual Inadequacy. Boston: little Brown; 1970.
  27. Nobre PJ, Pinto-Gouveia J, Dysfunctional Sexual Beliefs as Vulnerability Factors to Sexual Dysfunction. J Sex Res 2006; 43(3): 68–75.
  28. Fahimi Z, the Effect of Sexual Skills Training (Cognitive Behavior) on Sexual Satisfaction, Marriage Satisfaction, Anxiety and Depression in Women. M.A. Thesis of Ferdowsi University. Iran: Mashhad; 2010. (Persian)
  29. Eshghi R, the Effect of Sex Education on Self Esteem and Sexual Knowledge of Women in Isfahan. J taze ha va Pajouhesh haye moshaavere 2006; 6(23): 144-53. (Persian)
  30. Rahimi E, the Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Education on Sexual Knowledge, Attitude and Self Esteem of Women in Shiraz. J Armaghane danesh 2008; 14(3): 17-26. (Persian).
  31. Nobre PJ, Pinto-Gouveia J, Cognitive Schema Activation in Sexual Context: A Questionnaire to Assess Cognitive Schemas Activated in Sexual Failure Situations. J Sex Res 2008; 15(3): 175-89.
  32. Hawton K, Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Translated by ghasem zadeh H. Teharn, Arjmand Publication; 2008. (Persian)
  33. Mohammadi Kh, Heydari M, Faghihzadeh S.  Validity  of  the  Persian  Version  of  the  Scale  Female  Sexual Function Index-FSFI as the Female Sexual Function Index. J Payesh) .2008(; 7 (2): 269- 78. (Persian)
  34. Rosen R, Brown C, Heiman J, Leiblum S. the  Female  Sexual  Function  Index  (FSFI):  a Multidimensional  Self-report  Instrument  for  the Assessment  of  Female  Sexual  Function. J Sex Marital Ther 2000; 26:191–208.
  35. Barrientos JE. Psychological Variables of Sexual Satisfaction. J Sex Marital Ther 2006; 32 (2):351- 68.
  36. Nichols M. Family Therapy: Concepts and Methods. Danjeh Publication: Tehran;2010. (Persian)
  37. Fakhraayee S. Social Analysis of Conflicts in Shiraz Families. J Women Studying. (2008); 2 (1): 75-113. (Persian)
  38. Steinberg L, the Ten Basic Principles of Good Parenting. Translated by: Aaber M, Tehran: Development Publication; 2010. (Persian)
  39. Beshaarat M, Sexual Problems and their Treatments. J Counseling and Development 2000; 9 (10); 102-14 (Persian)
  40. Shaah siah M, the Effect of Sex Education on Improvement of Sexual Quality in Couples of Isfahan. M.A. Thesis of Isfahan University; 2009. (Persian)
  41. Haghighi M, the Effect of Sex Education on Improvement of Sexual Satisfaction and Performance in Women. M.A. Thesis of Isfahan University; 2003. (Persian)
  42. Paak gohar M, Mir Mohammad ali M, Mahmoudi M, Farnaam F, the Effect of Premarriage Counseling on Sexual Health and Sexual Satisfaction. Conference of Sexual Health of Shahid Beheshti University 2001; 11(4): 33-46. (Persian)
  43. Etemadi A, Navaabi Nejad Sh, Ahmadi A, Farzad V, the Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Couple Therapy on Couple’s Intimacy of Isfahan. J psychological studying 2004; 2(1): 15-29. (Persian)